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When contributing to the reading guide, follow these steps:
1) First complete the reading guide on your own from the Genetics unit page.

2) Write your response to a question in word and then copy it. Be sure to upload pictures and/or video for each question.
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Sign your contribution with your first name and last initial and TEAM COLOR
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Remember to include pictures and or video for all answersSmiley-02-june.gif

AP Biology
Chapter 13 Guided Reading Assignment

1. Compare and contrast asexual and sexual reproduction.

In asexual reproduction, a single individual is the sole parent and passes copies of all its genes to its offspring. In sexual reproduction, two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from the two parents.

2. Define the following terms:

    1. Life cycle
      It is the generation to generation sequence of stages in the reproductive history of an organism, from conception to production of its own offspring.
    2. Somatic cell
      Any cell other than a gamete.
    3. Karyotype
      It is the chromosomes when they are arranged in pairs.
    4. Homologous chromosomes
      It is when two chromosomes composing a pair have the same length, centromere position, and staining pattern.
    5. Sex chromosomes
      The x and y determine the sex of the individual
    6. Autosomes
      All the other chromosomes that don’t determine sex.
    7. Diploid cell
      Any cell with two chromosome sets.
    8. Haploid cell
      Any somatic cells, gamete contain a single chromosome set.
    9. Fertilization
      It is the union of gametes, culminating in fusion of their nuclei.
    10. Zygote
      It is the fertilized egg.
k. Meiosis
This type of division reduces the number of sets of chromosomes from two to one in the gametes.

Jim Raciti

3. How are karyotypes prepared?
Karyotypes are prepared from isolated somatic cells, which are forced to simulate mitosis for several days. Photographs are taken and then they are electronically arranged based on chromosome.
external image karyotype.jpg

-Steve W.-

4. Describe the three different types of life cycles.
The three different types of life cycles are animal, plants and some algae, and most fungi and some protists. The factor that they all have in common is the alteration of meiosis and fertilization, but the timing is different. These factors contribute to genetic variation among offspring. -- Jackie H. Pink Team

Animals- gametes are the only haploid cells. Meiosis occurs during the production of gametes, which undergo no further cell division prior to fertilization. The diploid zygote divides by mitosis, producing a multicellular organism that is diploid.
Plants- The diploid stage is called the sporophyte. Meiosis in the sporophyte produces haploid cells called spores. A spore divides mitotically to generate a multicellular haploid stage called the gametophyte.

Fungi- After gametes fuse and form a diploid zygote, meiosis occurs without a diploid offspring developing. Meiosis produces not gametes but haploid cells that then divide by mitosis and give rise to a haploid multicellular adult organism.
Adam A. Pink Team

5. What exactly is meant by alternation of generations?

It is a life cycle in which there both a multicellular diploid form, the sporophyte, and a multicellular haploid form, the gametophyte. A lot of plants and algae have this characteristic.
-- Brian N and the green team

6. Upload a diagram or video that describes the steps of meiosis.

7. What are the two broad goals of meiosis?

8. Summarize the comparison of mitosis and meiosis. Upload pictures that highlight the differences.
One major difference between meiosis and mitosis is that meiosis reduces the number of chromosomes in the cells produced by half the original amound, whre mitosis produces copies of the original cells with the same amount of chromosomes. Meiosis has two divisions, each of which include prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Something original to meiosis is the synapsis of homologous chromosomes (when chromosomes line up and a "zipper-like" protein connects them). Mitosis forms only two daughter cells which are genetically identical to the parent cell and meiosis produces four daughter cells which are all unique from the parent cell and one another. the most important difference is that mitosis produces cells that help with growth and tissue repair, whereas meiosis produces gametes only.

external image comparison.gif external image meiosis-and-mitosis-comparison.gif

9.Describe in detail the three sources of genetic variation in meiosis.