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Chapter 14 Guided Reading Assignment

1. Who were the two strong influences on Mendel’s education?

The two strong influences on Mendel's education are Christian Doppler and Franz Unger.
- Amy (Blue)

2. Define and provide pictures for the following terms:
a. Character- Heritable feature that varies among individuals

b. Trait- each variant for a character

c. True-breeding- all offspring are of the same variety

d. Hybridization- mating or crossing of 2 true-breeding varieties

e. P generation- true breeding parents

f. F1 generation- hybrid offspring of P generation; first filial generation

g. F2 generation- self polinated from F1; second filial generation

h. Alleles- alternative versions of a gene that produce distinguishable phenotypic effects

i. Punnett Square- diagramic device for predicting the allele composition of offspring from a cross between individuals known genetic make-up

j. Homozygous- an organsm having a pair of identical alleles for a character

k. Heterozygous- an organism that has two different allels for a gene

l. Phenotype- organism traits

m. genotype- genetic make-up
-Amy (Blue)

3. In your own words, what is Mendel’s Law of Segregation?
- Mendel's law of segregation is when allels seperate from eachother before the formation gametes and then are combinded at random during fertilization.
Katie Halbruner (:
external image Fig13-6.gif

4. Give an example of a monohybrid cross and a dihybrid cross.
A monohybrid cross example would be: tall peas x short peas or TT x tt
A dihybrid cross example would be : tall peas with round seeds x short peas with wrinkled seeds or TTRR x ttrr
Katie Halbruner :)
external image monohybrid%20cross.jpgexternal image DihybridCross.gif

5. What is the Law of Independent Assortment and how does this “law” relate to meiosis?
The law of independent assortment is when each member of a pair of homologous chromosomes separates independently of the members of the other pairs. Separation results in a "random pool".
external image metphsIb.gif

-Dahlia M.

6. Write your own example for the Law of Independent Assortment.
The color of your skin is controlled by a different allele than the trait for your eye color.
external image 775-004-F3BAFB88.gif
-Dahlia M.

7. Define and then explain in your own words both the Rules of Multiplication and the Rules of Addition.
The Rule of Multiplication suggests that to figure out the chances of two events simultaneously take place than you must multiply the probability of each event.
EX. To determine the probability of two heterozygous individuals passing on their recessive allele to and offspring, you multiply ½ (one individuals chance) by ½ (other individuals chance).

The Rule of Addition is for when trying to find out the probability of passing on one recessive allele, but not both.
EX. Trying to find out the chances of two heterozygous individuals having heterozygous offspring.

Taihlor C.

8. Contrast codominance and incomplete dominance.

Condominace => both dominant alleles are expressed
Incomplete Dominance => traits are blended such as white and red flower makes a pink flower

Taihlor C.

9. What are multiple alleles?

when more than two different alleles exist for the same trait- the many possibilities the population can have.

ex:hair color

ashley abrowns.jpg

10. What does the term Pleiotropy mean?

It means one gene will have a lot of phenotypic effects

ashley a

11. In your own words, explain epistasis.

Epistasis (EPI=above and STASIS=remaining) when one gene is more "important" than, or masks the expression of, another.

Example: The B allele in guinea pigs makes black fur, so any pig with a dominant allele is black. However, the P gene determines the deposition of pigment, so that without a P allele, pigment is not deposited. Not matter how many B alleles ther are, there is no black fur without a P allele. Guinea pigs with the genotype BBpp are, therefore, white, and those that are BBPp are black.

The P gene is epistatic to the B gene.

12. What would be your “clue” that a character would have polygenic inheritance pattern?

Polygenic inheritance is a pattern responsible for many features that seem simple on the surface like height and weight.
The "clue" would be that it would show continuous variation rather than discrete or noncontinuous variation.

Human skin color shows continuous variation. It's not just white and black, it's a whole range becuase there are several genes involved. Earlobes are not because they are either attached or free and there's no inbetween.

13. What is a pedigree and how does it help in our understanding of genetics?
A pedigree is a chart that shows the family relationships between several people, and whether or not they are affected by a genetic condition (phenotype or genotype). It helps in the understanding of genetics, because it will show how a genetic defect is inherited, so it will help to show whether it is autosomal or sex-linked, or whether it is dominant or recessive.
-Kelly Sinclair

14. Describe and discuss the genetics of the following inherited disorders:
a. Cystic Fibrosis- Inherited disease, where thick sticky mucus builds up in the lungs and digestive tract causing chronic lung disease.
b. Sickle cell disease- Autosomal recessive genetic blood disorder where with overdominance characterized by red blood cells that assume an abnormal, rigid sickle cell decreasing cells flexibility.
c. Achondroplasia- Autosomal dominant senetic disorder associated with dwarfism.
d. Huntington’s disease- Huntington's disease is caused by a genetic defect on chromosome #4. The defect causes a part of DNA, called a CAG repeat, to occur many more times than it is supposed to. Normally, this section of DNA is repeated 10 to 35 times. But in persons with Huntington's disease, it is repeated 36 to 120 times.
fibrosis.jpg sickle_cell_anemia2.jpg

15. Contrast amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling

CVS is a similar procedure done to detect the same abnormalities as an amnio but the method is different. As opposed to extracting the amniotic fluid from the abdomen with a needle, it is extracted vaginally from a small tube that will then test the fluid for abnormalities/defects.Amniocentesis is a procedure performed on pregnant women to determine possible risk factors with their developing fetus. A long needle is inserted through the abdomen into the uterus, being guided by an ultrasound, that extracts amniotic fluid. This amniotic fluid is then further tested to determine certain risks such as Down syndrome. Although amniocentesis does have it benefits of obtaining this kind of knowledge, it also poses threats to the fetus such as a .8% chance of miscarriage, clubfeet, trauma to the mother, preterm labor and an infection of the uterus.

-Kelly Sinclair