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1. Define the following terms: -Mr. V approved

    1. Abiotic
      Non-living components of an ec
      osystemABIOTIC_FACTORS.jpgEmily A.-Red team
    2. Biotic
      Living components of an ecosystem
    3. Biota
      All organisms that are part of an environment
Give an example of the interactions of biotic and abiotic factors.
Sunlight, an abiotic component in the environment, provides photosynthetic plants, which are biotic components, with energy for them to grow and pass on the energy to other members of the ecosystem.

Kim K.: Red Team



--Jackie H.--Red team


biotic_factors.jpgEmily A.-Red team


2.What do the following subfields of ecology study? -Mr. V approved



    1. Organismal ecology
      This field studies how an organism’s structure, physiology, and (for animals) behavior meet the challenges posed by the environment
    2. Population ecology – include the definition of ecology
      Ecology is the study of an organism’s interaction with its environment. Population ecology, therefore, is a study of how those interactions limit the amount of individuals in a particular species and area.
    3. Community ecology – include the definition of community
      A community is the organisms of al species that inhabit a particular area. Community ecology, therefore, is how all of these species interact with one another in terms of predation, competition, and disease. Some abiotic factors that affect these species are included in this study.
    4. Ecosystem ecology – include the definition of ecosystem
      An ecosystem is all of the abiotic factors in addition to the community of species that exist in a certain area. Ecosystem ecology focuses on the energy flow and chemical cycling that occurs between those factors of an ecosystem.
    5. Landscape ecology
      This is the study of a collection of ecosystems and how they are arranges geographically.
Kim K.: Red Team


3. Explain the factors that affect dispersal of organisms. -Mr. V says "OK"


Dispersal, or the movement of individuals away from a center of high population, is demonstrated when organisms expand their range by moving into areas where they did not exist previous. The main factor affecting dispersal of organisms is range. If too large of a land (or water) barrier exists to prevent an organism in one place from migrate to another, it is said that this affects that particular species’ distribution. (Ex., it is too far for a Mongolian rodent to migrate to the Mississippi Valley). In contrast, organisms capable of traveling long distances have been able to surpass range barriers and colonize in many places. The cattle egret is an example, migrating from the “East” to the Americas by way of flight.
Dan S.

Resource (food, shelter, mates, etc) availability may drive and direct dispersal as well. -Mr. V



4. Give two examples of the impact of abiotic factors on the distribution of organism: -Mr. V approved(although the picture is confusing to me)


Temperature-profound effect on biological processes
Most cells must be in areas above freezing, (0 C), or their membranes may rupture
- Most organisms cannot live in areas with extreme temperatures (hot or cold), as they will not be able to maintain homeostasis or preserve an active metabolism.
Water
-Desert organisms are adapted specifically survive in an area with a scarce amount of water; they thrive by utilizing complex conservation and water acquisition techniques
-Many organisms are only able to survive by being
submerged in water; freshwater and saltwater habitats both exists, and many species are only exclusive to either area.
Sunlight-provides the energy that drives nearly all ecosystems
-The migration of certain terrestrial animals are affected by the
photoperiod, the relative lengths of daytime and nighttime
-In aquatic environments, the intensity and quality of light limit the distribution of photosynthetic organisms (most photosynthesis takes place near the water surface)
Wind
-Many plants rely on the wind to scatter their pollen, which effects the reproductive successes (and subsequently, distribution) of many species
-Wind results in a water loss in both animals (increased rate of evaporative cooling) and plants (transpiration) forcing them to adjust accordingly
Rocks and soil
-The composition of the bottom surface of a stream/river can affect the water chemistry, which affects organisms that thrive on the lake floor
-PH, physical structure, and mineral composition of rocks and soil determine what kind of animals and plants can thrive in a given ecosystem. This is especially limiting in “patchy”
ecosystems (desert, tundra, etc.)Distribution2.gif
Dan S.


5. What is the difference between macroclimate and microclimate? -Mr. V says "OK" (can you explain the picture)? FIXED!!!
  1. Macroclimate describes climate patterns on the global, regional, and local levels, such as the world, a country, or a city. Microclimate describes very fine climate patterns, such as the community of organism’s living underneath a fallen log.
    Macroclimate includes bodies of water, mountains, and seasonality. Features in the environment that influence microclimate include the casting of shade, affecting evaporation from soil, and changing wind patterns. For example, forests are part of the macroclimate. The low microclimate of a forest is moderated by the trees above it.

Microclimates are of a small, specific place within an area as contrasted with the climate of the area.
Macroclimate is the climate of a large geographic area.


HPIM2781.JPG
This picture describes a microclimate. On the outside of these trees, all of the areas around it including the forest would be represented by the macroclimate. Underneath the branches and shrubs, however, an entire community is represented, with its own microclimate. The climate of the area below the forest are determined by the trees above. The microclimate of this forest does not have to resemble to macroclimate of the area outside of the forest.

-Corinne
-Keely


6. How does latitude affect sunlight intensity? -Mr. V approved

Sunlight most directly strikes the tropics, so the most heat and light per unit of surface area are delivered there. This is because of Earth’s curved shape. Sunlight strikes Earth at a more oblique angle at higher latitudes, so light energy is more diffuse (less intense) on earth’s surface.

http://www-personal.umich.edu/~sarhaus/courses/NRE530_F1998/501f/kn1.jpg
http://www-personal.umich.edu/~sarhaus/courses/NRE530_F1998/501f/kn1.jpg


-Corinne





7. What causes the seasons? -Mr. V says you need to revise, especially the highlighted section - perhaps add a video as well

601seasons.jpg

The seasons are caused by the revolution of the Earth around the Sun. For one half of the year, the
northern hemisphere is closer to the sun, and for the other half of the year, the southern hemisphere is closer to the sun.

-Steve W.-



8. Explain how mountains affect rainfall?
-Mr. V says to revise (what do you mean by rain shadow) -perhaps include a picture
Warm moist air approaches the mountain and then rises and cools as it travels up the slope dropping all water in the cloud. The dry air descends causing a rain shadow. South facing slopes are warmer and dryer because they receive more sunlight.
-Alyssa C​



9. How does seasonal turnover in lakes affect the oxygen level available to the aquatic organisms?
-Mr. V says to revise by explaining how temperature change drives turnover.
external image laketurnover.gif
Turnover brings oxygenated water from a lake's surface to the bottom and nutrient-rich water from the bottom to the surface in the spring and the fall. This is necessary for all organisms in this ecosystem to grow and survive.
During the summer, the sun heats water near the surface of lakes. Eventually a condition known as "stratification" develops, putting a well-defined warm layer of water over a cool one. Fish like the cooler water but they also need the higher oxygen levels found in warmer water So they'll migrate to an area right between the two levels of water called the thermo cline. This is a place where fish can find warmer water but have access to cooler and safer water.
With the arrival of fall and cooler air temperatures, water at the surface of lakes cools, becoming almost as heavy as the cooler bottom water. Strong winds move surface water around, which promotes mixing with deeper water. As mixing continues, lake water becomes more uniform in temperature and oxygen level, allowing fish to move around freely. Fish can be difficult to find as long as these conditions prevail, usually continues until the weather turns cold, chilling the lake's surface.
Each fish has a different range of water temperature in which it can survive. Although fish cannot always find the exact temperature they prefer, they are usually found in water close to that temperature. By combining a knowledge of preferred water temperature and lake turnover, you can sort-of predict which fish will be in a particular part of a lake at a particular time of the year. Fishing that like warmer water will be surface feeders in the summer and bottom feeders in the fall. And fish that like cooler water will feed deep in the spring and on the surface in the fall.



-Amanda P.









10. Describe the zones in these environments
-Mr. V approved

    1. Aquatic-
Littoral Zone- shallow, well-lighted waters close to shore
Limnetic Zone- further away from shore, water is too deep to support rooted aquatic plants
Photic Zone- area with sufficient light for photosynthesis
Aphotic Zone- area where little light penetrates
Benthic Zone- made up of sand and organic and inorganic sediments. The bottom of all aquatic biomes

lake_zonation.gif


    1. Marine
Neritic Zone- coastal waters
Oceanic Zone- vast realm of open blue water
Intertidal Zone- periodically submerged and exposed by the tides, twice daily on most marine shores
Pelagic Zone- vast realm of open blue water
Abyssal Zone- very deep benthic zone
Benthic Zone- made up of sand and organic and inorganic sediments. The bottom of all aquatic biomes
Photic Zone- area with sufficient light for photosynthesis
Aphotic Zone- area where little light penetrates


marine_zonation.gif
Zack B. Purple team

11. Describe the following aquatic biomes – write enough to use this guided reading as a study guide for the test. -Mr. V says add a representative picture of each biome

    1. Lakes--These are bodies of flowing water moving in one direction. Streams and rivers can be found everywhere — they get their starts at headwaters, which may be springs, snowmelt or even lakes, and then travel all the way to their mouths, usually another water channel or the ocean. The characteristics of a river or stream change during the journey from the source to the mouth. The temperature is cooler at the source than it is at the mouth. The water is also clearer, has higher oxygen levels, and freshwater fish such as trout and heterotrophs can be found there. Towards the middle part of the stream/river, the width increases, as does species diversity — numerous aquatic green plants and algae can be found. Toward the mouth of the river/stream, the water becomes murky from all the sediments that it has picked up upstream, decreasing the amount of light that can penetrate through the water. Since there is less light, there is less diversity of flora, and because of the lower oxygen levels, fish that require less oxygen, such as catfish and carp, can be found.--MarioCiao lake.jpg
    2. Wetlands--An area covered with water that supports aquatic plants. Wetlands range from periodically flooded regions to soil that is permanently saturated during the growing season. These Conditions favor the growth of specially adapted plants called hydrophytes, which can grow in water or in soil that is periodically anaerobic due to the presence of water. There are different types of wetlands, ranging from marshes to swamps to bogs. Ecologically, wetlands are among the richest of biomes. They contain a diverse community of invertebrates, supporting a wide variety of birds. -- Shayne H. Green wetland.jpg
    3. Streams and Rivers--These are bodies of flowing water moving in one direction. Streams and rivers can be found everywhere. They get their starts at headwaters, which may be springs or lakes, and then travel all the way to their mouths, usually another water channel or the ocean. The characteristics of a river or stream change during the journey from the source to the mouth. The temperature is cooler at the source than it is at the mouth. The water is also clearer, has higher oxygen levels, and freshwater fish such as trout and heterotrophs can be found there. Towards the middle part of the stream/river, the width increases, as does species diversity. Numerous aquatic green plants and algae can be found. Toward the mouth of the river/stream, the water becomes murky from all the sediments that it has picked up upstream, decreasing the amount of light that can penetrate through the water. Since there is less light, there is less diversity of flora, and because of the lower oxygen levels, fish that require less oxygen, such as catfish and carp, can be found.--Mario Ciao
    4. Estuaries--This is a transitional area between river and sea. Salt water sinks so is usually on bottom and freshwater is less dense so it is on top. Salinity depends on the rising and falling of the tides. Martin A, Green estuaries.jpg
    5. Intertidal Zones- Also known as the beach. This area is periodically above water because of the tides. Oxygen and nutrient levels are generally high. Martin A. Green intertidal_zone.jpg
    6. Ocean Pelagic Biome--Nutrient concentrations are generally lower in the open ocean than in coastal areas because the remains of plankton and other organisms sink below the photic region into the dark, lower benthic zone. Photosynthetic plankton grow and reproduce rapidly in the photic region of the oceanic biome. Temperate oceans experience a nutrient turnover in the spring and in them fall. In some tropical areas, surface waters are lower in nutrients than the surface waters of temperate oceans because a year round thermal stratification prevents an exchange of nutrients between the surface and the deep. --Shayne H. Green
ocean_pelagic.jpg
    1. Coral Reef-Coral reefs are structures created by living organisms that are found in low nutrient areas of the ocean. Most commonly found, but not limited to the tropics, coral reefs are made up of diverse groups of cnidarians. These beautiful reefs bring many organisms together from algae and coral to sharks, fish and turtles. They are only found in areas that range from about 18 degrees Celsius to 30 degrees Celsius. -Adam A, Green-
coral01.jpg
2. Marine Benthic Zone-
The Marine Benthic zone is the lowest part, or the seafloor of the waters in the coastal, offshore, or pelagic zones. In most benthic zones, there isn’t enough sunlight to support photosynthetic organisms. As you increase depth the temperature declines and pressure increases. In the deeper parts of the benthic zones animals include invertebrates such as arthropods and echinoderms along with chemosynthetic prokaryotes that live in symbiosis with the giant worms of the deep-sea hydrothermal vents.-Adam A, Green- benthic.jpg

12. How does temperature and precipitation impact the distribution of terrestrial biomes? Use figure 50.18 to answer this question. This is a core concept.
-Mr. V says revise be explaining the figure more specifically

biomesd.gif
The climate affects distribution. Rainfall and temperature correlate with biomes in different regions. A certain temperature can occur through different biomes, but the amount of precipitation causes the biomes to be different because more or less rain will allow for different conditions based on the regions.


Laura C Purple Team


13. Describe the following terrestrial biomes – write enough to use this guided reading as a study guide for the test.
-Mr. V approved

    1. Tropical forest :
Equatorial and subequatorial. Constant rainfall or seasonal heavy rain. Major competition for light by plants. Highest animal diversity than any other biome. Humans have destroyed the biome through deforestation.
tropical-rain-forest.jpg
  • Desert :
Mostly at 30 degrees Celsius N and S latitude but also occurs on the interiors of some continents at other latitudes. Precipitation is very low and variable. Variable temperatures from -30 degrees Celsius to 50 degrees Celsius. Low widely scattered vegetation.
desert.jpg
  • Savanna :
Equatorial and subequatorial. Seasonal rainfall with long dry season. Warm all year round. Scattered trees, grasses, and thorny shrubs. Home to large herbivorous animals and there predators.
Savanna.jpg
  • Chaparral :
Mid-latitude coastal regions. Precipitation is seasonal with rainy winters and dry summers. Home to shrubs and small trees and evergreens. High diversity of small mammals and grazers. High diversity of other small animals.
555_PS-Chamise-RS-chaparral.jpg

  • Temperate grassland :
Found in patches throughout the world. Grasses and forbs. Very resilient. Cold winters and highly seasonal precipitation. Home to large grazers and burrowing animals.
temperate_grassland.jpg
  • Coniferous forest :
Largest terrestrial biome in the world. Droughts are common. Long cold winters. Mostly made up of large cone bearing trees. Home to many migrating birds. Many mammals and insects.
conefersions.jpg
  • Temperate broadleaf forest :
Mid-latitudes of the northern hemisphere. Made up of layers of plants dominated by large trees. Home to mammals, birds, and insects. Cold winters and hot, humid winters. Very resilient but have been harmed by logging and land clearing.
broadleaf.jpg

  • Tundra :
Huge expansive areas arctic. Cover 20% of the Earth’s surface. Plants include lichens, mosses, grasses, and forbs. 20-60 cm of precipitation annually. Permafrost prevents water from infiltrating. Home to birds, grazers and their predators.
arctic_tundra.jpg
~Ilian DeCorte